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Documentation style guide

All CiviCRM guides (like this Developer Guide) are intended to provide high-quality "finished" documentation about CiviCRM. This Style Guide page documents the standards we wish to uphold to ensure all guides maintain this high level of quality.

General guidelines

Docs nomenclature

To streamline communication about documentation issues, we define the following terms:

  • "Chapter" - folder
  • "Sub-chapter" - a folder within a folder
  • "Page" - file (in markdown)
  • "Section" - heading within the page

Page names

In the navigation menu (as stored in mkdocs.yml):

  • Each page name should be short enough to fit nicely in the menu, but also long enough to stand on its own to a reasonable extent. The titles set here are used in the navigation menu and the page title that displays in the browser tab. The guide will be more usable if the reader sees two tabs titled "Using Hooks" and "API Usage" instead of "Usage" and "Usage".

Introductory paragraphs

Each page should start with a paragraph that explains what will be covered in the page.

Cumulative concepts

Effort should be given to arrange all content within a guide so that skills and concepts which build upon one another are presented sequentially. Although guides should not require start-to-finish reading, providing the option (when possible) is helpful to some readers.

Cross-references

Don't use terms like "previous chapter", etc. because we may add or re-arrange pages in the future. Instead, use a hyperlink to the page, or ideally to the specific section within the page.

Hackable URLs

When you organize several markdown files into one folder, it's good practice to include an index.md file within the folder and list this index file first in the list of pages within the folder in mkdocs.yml. This creates a "general" page which follows the same URL structure as the other pages in the folder but allows readers to hack the URL more easily.

Headings

The first heading in a page should be Heading 1. All others should be in H2 and H3, only where necessary. If you find yourself wanting to use H4, consider if it's truly necessary and whether the page should instead be refactored.

Title capitalization

Titles for chapters, pages, and sections should all be in sentence case (first word capitalized), not headline case (each word capitalized).

Describing the CiviCRM user interface

Bold for things you click

Menu selections, buttons, tabs (basically, things that the reader is being told to click) should be in bold.

For example:

  • Navigate to Administer > CiviEvent > Event Types to review the default list of event types.
  • Modify event type labels by clicking Edit on any row.
  • Click Add Event Type to create a new category for your events.

UI element capitalization

Elements of the system and interface should be capitalized (e.g. the Events component, the Template Title field).

It is also sometimes helpful for clarity when discussing concepts to use capitalization to distinguish between a specific activity within CiviCRM and a generic activity (e.g. the Send Email activity versus sending an email). However, sometimes it is too cumbersome or just plain weird to capitalize every instance of a term even if it refers to a specific CiviCRM thing or technical definition (e.g. scheduled reminders, plain text). Use your best judgment as to what serves the reader; trying to enforce consistency in this arena will slow us down or drive us crazy.

Quotes

Quotes should be avoided as much as possible; however, do use them when they seem necessary for clarity (e.g. if you are talking about setting or field labels that are long phrases).

Types of CiviCRM pages

You can divide the CiviCRM interface into administration pages and public-facing pages.

Formatting conventions

Bullets and numbered lists

Bulleted lists should be used to convey short snippets of information. Numbered lists should be used to describe specific steps in a process that must be done in order.

Numbered lists should always be made up of full sentences (since they are instructions) and thus should include terminal punctuation.

Bulleted lists may or may not need to be full sentences. Full sentence bullets need terminal punctuation. Bullets that are not full sentences should not have terminal punctuation. However, if any particular list contains one or more full-sentence bullets, all bullets (even those that are not full sentences) should have terminal punctuation.

Sections that are over 50% bullets look really bad and not like a book. If you see a section which is 'all bullets', consider rewriting it removing them.

Images

Images should be in png format and a maximum of 690px wide. Please use descriptive names for images.

Alternative Text (ALT Tags) should be included for every image.

Machine-readable symbols

Machine-readable symbols (e.g. files names, classes, functions, variables, database tables, database columns, commands, etc.) should be formatted either with inline monospace or preformatted code blocks (also in monospace). See the markdown syntax to use for such formatting.

URLs

Sample links to specific CiviCRM URL paths should use example.org as the domain.

http://example.org/civicrm/mailing/queue&reset=1

Language

Spelling and punctuation

Both U.K. and U.S. English spellings are acceptable; we actually welcome inconsistency around this. CiviCRM is an international project, so its mixing it up is a benefit.

Double quotes are preferred over single quotes.

Avoid abbreviations. For example, write "organisation" instead of "org".

Below are our preferred spellings of CiviCRM-specific words:

  • "autoresponder" (not auto-responder)
  • "CiviCRM" (not "Civi")
  • "deduplicate", "dedupe" (not "de-duplicate" or "de-dupe")
  • "dropdown", "dropdown menu" (not "drop-down")
  • "meetup" (noun)
  • "non-profit" (not "nonprofit")
  • "set up" (verb), "set-up" (noun)
  • "unsubscribe" (not "un-subscribe")

Terminology

  • contact - a contact record within CiviCRM
  • organisation/organization - an organisation that uses (or is evaluating) CiviCRM
  • user - a person who interacts with CiviCRM via the user interface
  • site admin - a user who administers CiviCRM via the administration pages
  • system administrator - a technical person who administers the CiviCRM system above and beyond the user interface
  • hosting provider
    • in the User Guide - synonymous with system administrator
    • in other guides - a person or company that owns and/or maintains the server upon which CiviCRM runs
  • developer - a computer programmer who writes code to improve or extend the functionality, stability or security of CiviCRM
  • core team
    • in the User Guide - should be avoided - use "CiviCRM" or "the CiviCRM community"
    • in other guides - refers to the core team

Gender neutrality

When describing people in examples, avoid using pronouns that assign specific genders to them.

Example of gendered language to avoid:

When a supporter wishes to fundraise on behalf of an organization, he can create a fundraising page himself, called a Personal Campaign Page, and then solicit donations from his friends and family. After a donation arrives, CiviCRM can even send him a notification email.

Option 1 - fix by using singular they (which is rapidly gaining popularity ):

When a supporter wishes to fundraise on behalf of an organization, they can create a fundraising page themself, called a Personal Campaign Page, and then solicit donations from their friends and family. After a donation arrives, CiviCRM can even send them a notification email.

Option 2 - fix by avoiding pronouns entirely:

A supporter wishing to fundraise on behalf of an organization can autonomously create a fundraising page, called a Personal Campaign Page, and then solicit donations from friends and family. After a donation arrives, CiviCRM can even send the supporter a notification email.

Avoid fixing gendered language by replacing "he" with phrases such as: "he/she", "he or she", "she", or "s/he". Such replacements (a) become more awkward when sentences include multiple pronouns, (b) do not intuitively offer a consistent choice among them, and (c) fail to acknowledge that some people identify with genders outside of a binary framework.

Tip

Find gendered language in a book with the following command:

grep -E -r --include='*.md' '\b((he)|(him)|(his)|(himself)|(she)|(her)|(hers)|(herself))\b' .

Tone and vocabulary

Try to avoid constructions that tell people what they should do when multiple options exists. We want to recognize and respect that there is more than one way to approach being a user or developer. Preferring constructions that suggest ways that people can do things. We would like to to avoid language that gets proscriptive or feels intimidating from a reader's perspective, and we like having a guide that can be consumed by people in different ways.

For the User Guide only: We try and limit the content to tasks that the user can perform from the front end. This means that we don't go into detailed steps about installation or system administration tasks. We do however let people know that there are system administrator tasks out there (setting up an SSL certificate, configuring CiviMail etc.) and point them in the right direction when they want to know about those tasks.

Shell Commands in documentation.

When writing shell commands in documentation as examples, for any commands that are expected to be typed out by the user a $ should be put in front of the command. e.g.

$ cd ~/buildkit/build/drupal-demo/sites/all/modules/civicrm
$ civibuild create drupal-demo --civi-ver master --url http://localhost:8001
$ hub fork

The output of a shell command should not have a $ prepended. e.g.

$ git remote -v
origin  https://github.com/civicrm/civicrm-core.git (fetch)
origin  https://github.com/civicrm/civicrm-core.git (push)
yourusername      git@github.com:yourusername/civicrm-core.git (fetch)
yourusername      git@github.com:yourusername/civicrm-core.git (push)

Authors should also not put any comments within the examples themselves, whereas any comments should go outside of the code block in regular paragraphs. Where possible each command should be its own comment block. When it is crucial for the user to understand the directory in which to run the command, include a separate code block before hand with a cd command.

Write portable shell commands

Most system administrators use bash as their interactive command-line, but some administrators customize their systems to use csh, zsh, or similar. These systems are usually very similar -- but may differ if there are complex conditionals, job-controls, etc. See bash-hackers.org for tips on writing portable shell commands.