Email System Configuration
This chapter covers system configuration necessary so that CiviCRM can send and receive email. This is a complex task which requires system administrator level skills. The correct configuration of your email system is crucial to keep your server off spam lists and black lists.
See the Email sections chapter on Set up for tasks necessary to set up the sending of messages once these email system configuration settings have been configured.
Some parts of the configuration are core CiviCRM functionality (basic sending and receiving of emails) whereas others (mass mailings) require that the CiviMAIL component be enabled.
You will need to be able to change the configuration of your DNS, create email accounts, configure a cron job, read the headers of email messages, and possibly change the configuration of your SMTP server.
This chapter assumes you are running CiviCRM on a Linux server and that you are comfortable working with the shell and running some simple commands. Most of these steps will be similar on other operating systems, but you will need to adapt them to your system and tools.
The configuration described works fine for mailings to up to about 10,000 people. If you plan on sending email to hundreds of thousands of contacts, you should benchmark several options and consider a dedicated SMTP server. This more complex configuration is outside the scope of this book but you can find community contributed instructions on the CiviCRM documentation wiki. (http://wiki.civicrm.org/confluence/display/CRMDOC/CiviMail+Installation).
In this chapter we'll use an external Gmail mailbox address to test configuration. So the first step is to create a Gmail account if you don't have one already; alternatively, you can use another address for testing the procedures in this chapter, but you will need to be able to view the source of the mails you receive.
Once your system is properly configured we are going to use cron to trigger CiviCRM's Scheduled Jobs to ensure your scheduled mailings are sent.
Configuring outbound email service
Outbound email settings are configured at: Administer > System Settings > Outbound Email (SMTP/Sendmail). The choices here are:
- mail(): This is the default option and if it works for you, you should use it.
- SMTP: If you have a dedicated external mail server, specify its details here. Bounce messages generated with SMTP are slightly more complete than the ones from mail(), but there is no practical benefit to using SMTP if you can use mail().
- Sendmail: This option is kept for compatibility with older CiviCRM versions.
- Disable Outbound Email: Works as expected.
- Redirect to Database: All emails will be recorded as archived mailings instead of being sent out. They can be found in the civicrm_mailing_spool table in the CiviCRM database.
After making a choice, send a test email to your account on Gmail and verify that you receive it.
If you receive the following error message, you'll need to configure a default FROM email address (covered in the chapter on CiviMail configuration).
Sorry. A non-recoverable error has occurred. The site administrator needs to enter a valid 'FROM Email Address' in Administer -> Configure -> Domain Information. The email address used may need to be a valid mail account with your email service provider.
Once you have received the email, you will need to view the source. This is done in Gmail by clicking on "Show original" in the email you receive.
The email should contain headers that resemble the following.
Received: from yourmailserver.example.org (xxx.example.org [220.127.116.11]) by mx.google.com with ESMTP id e31si4519230wej.3.2010.04.26.00.38.16; Mon, 26 Apr 2010 00:38:17 -0700 (PDT) Received-SPF: pass google.com: best guess record for domain of [firstname.lastname@example.org](mailto:email@example.com) designates 18.104.22.168 as permitted sender) client-ip=22.214.171.124
"Received: from" header should correspond to your mail server and be properly configured. It might contain information about your hosting provider instead of your domain name. This is not a problem as long as the mail server is properly configured. If you have a dedicated IP address for your server, you should try to configure a reverse DNS that represents your organization instead of the default name.
"Received-SPF" header should list "pass" or "neutral". Sender Policy Framework is described later in more detail.
Sending mass mailing is resource intensive. We don't recommend sending email messages from budget hosting providers. The time you will spend troubleshooting will often cost more than upgrading to a more professional host. Check with your hosting provider to find out whether they limit the number of email messages you can send and whether they run PHP in safe mode.
Some of your recipients' mail servers use DNS based blacklisting services (DNSBL) which keep a blacklist of IP addresses likley to send spam. Mail from these servers will be flagged as spam and not reach its intended destination. If your server is blacklisted (for instance, because enough of your recipients flagged your email as spam, or because another website on your server has been flagged as spam), you will need to contact the organizations that have blacklisted you and convince them to remove you from their list.
They are several websites that help you testing whether you are in a DNSBL. A web search for "blacklisting email" will turn some up. Test regularly to find whether you are on a blacklist.
Configuring Sender Policy Framework (SPF)
By default, the Internet allows any mail server to send any email claiming to be from anyone. This makes it easy for spammers to forge addresses and send spam using your email address (or any other). SPF allows you to create a special DNS record listing the IP addresses of the mail servers that can legitimately send email from @yourdomain.org.
If your domain name already has an SPF record, make sure that it includes the IP address of your CiviCRM mail server (which might be a different from the host used for the web server or from your mail servers), and if it doesn't, add this IP address.
If you don't have an SPF record, consider adding one. You will need to add at least your mail server and CiviCRM server (if they are different) to the SPF record.
You can read more about SPF at http://www.openspf.org.
Configuring inbound email processing
This section explains configuration for bounce processing and auto filing incoming emails. Configuring Scheduled Jobs to do the actual bounce processing is discussed later in this chapter.
CiviCRM can automatically receive the bounced email notification and, based on the type of bounce reported by the recipient's server, flag your contacts accordingly. To accomplish this you will need to set up an email mailbox to receive bounced email messages and a schedule the Bounces Fetcher job that will periodically read this mailbox and update your contacts in civicrm.
The bounce email address is an "invisible" email address visible only in the email message's envelope (hidden fields that precede the headers and message added by the user). Choose any name you like that is meaningful to you. In this example we have chosen return, so the email address we need to set up on a mail server for example.org is firstname.lastname@example.org.
For each email sent via CiviMail's mass mailing feature, a new unique "invisible" sender address is created using the variable envelope return path or VERP. When CiviCRM receives a bounce, it looks at the invisible sender address to decide which email bounced.
CiviCRM then looks a the bounce pattern and type to decide what action to take. Bounce types fall into two basic categories: permanent failures (hard bounce) and transient failure (soft bounce). A single permanent failure triggers CiviCRM to set the contact's email as on hold. For transient failures, CiviCRM waits for several bounces before setting the contact's email on hold.
The specific threshold for each bounce type can be found in the civcirm_mailing_bounce_pattern and civicrm_mailing_bounce_type. Multiple different bounce reply patterns are linked to a given type and threshold.
CiviCRM can automatically retrieve email from a specified inbox and file it as an email activity against contacts of type Individual corresponding to sender and recipients of the email. New individual contacts are created for email adresses not already assigned to individuals in the database.
NOTE: This features only works for the Individual contact type. If the incoming email comes from an email address already record against an organization, a new individual contact with that same email address will be created and the activity will be recorded against that new individual contact, not against the organization.
There are two ways to do this (either or both ways can be setup at same time):
- Special email address: Set up a special email address for your organization, e.g. email@example.com. Users can then add this address in the Bcc field for your outbound emails; they will get auto-filed in CiviCRM as described above. No one who receives the email will see this special address if the Bcc field is used.
- IMAP Folder: Set up a folder in your IMAP Inbox where you can drag emails that you want filed in CiviCRM. This works with both inbound and outbound emails. (this requires that your email be set up using IMAP.)
Special email address for incoming email
There are several ways of configuring your incoming mailbox:
Sub-addressing: Your mail service might allow you to append a +tag or -tag qualifier to your e-mail address (e.g. firstname.lastname@example.org). Several mail servers, including Gmail, Yahoo! and Postfix provide this sub-addressing by default.
Try to send yourself an email, adding a +tag or -tag. If you received the mail you sent with a tag, it means that you can directly use the mailbox you created (email@example.com in our example) as the VERP.
"Catch-all" account: If sub-addressing doesn't work on your mail server, you need to define the mail account you created (firstname.lastname@example.org) as the "catch-all" account. Every mail sent to an address that isn't a real mail account will end up there, including all the bounced email messages.
External address : If neither of the preceding methods works, consider creating a new account on a service such as Gmail and use it to receive the bounced emails. You will have to set filters in this account so it doesn't discard as spam all the bounced email it will receive.
Adding an incoming email account for processing bounces and/or email-to-activities
Once you have created your email account to receive bounces or emails for auto filing, you need to set up CiviMail so it knows how to read it: Administer > CiviMail > Mail accounts as the default email address.
- Specify the mail server, username, and password you used when creating the account.
- The local part is optional and only relevant if you were able to set up an account using sub-addressing. It should be the account you created with '+' or '-' appended , e.g., "return+" or "return-".
- The email domain is the domain of your email address (example.org).
- You can leave the return path empty.
- If your mail server supports it, specify IMAP protocoland check SLL, otherwise use POP.
- You can specify an IMAP folder in the source field using the syntax INBOX.CiviMail. Note: Some exchange servers may not be configured in a compatible way. In that case, you can configure a script like fetchmail and use Maildir.
- In the Used for? field you can choose whether you want to use the email account for Bounce Processing or Email-to-Activity Processing (or Auto filing). You can have multiple accounts specified for auto filing but only one for bounce processing. This will be marked as default.
Once the Bounce Processing mailbox is configured, you will need to configure CiviMail to empty it, read all these bounced messages and identify the related bounced contacts. This is performed by the Scheduled Jobs feature of CiviCRM .
We recommend testing the bounce process by running the process manually before setting up CiviCRM to process the bounced email messages automatically. This can be done in Administer > System Settings > Scheduled Jobs. Locate Fetch Bounces and select more > Execute Now. Check the Job Log for any error messages.
Once you have verified that CiviCRM can properly handle the bounce, you can set it up to automatically process the replies and bounces on a regular basis.
Scheduling inbound and outbound mail processing
As discussed in the earlier chapter, mail processing and other jobs may be automated through the Scheduled Jobs administrative page, cron or a combination of both. The full range of options is discussed in the Manage Scheduled Jobs wiki page, but below are specific examples for enabling CiviCRM mail processing.
Scheduling using the Scheduled Jobs administrative page
Mass mailings are generated via the CiviMail web interface and are queued to be sent to their recipients. To schedule the regular processing of this queue and any bounces that are returned go to Administer > System Settings > Scheduled Jobs and find the Fetch Bounces and Send Scheduled Mailings jobs. Edit each in turn, setting their scheduled Frequency to "Hourly", "Daily" or "Every time cron is run". The defaults should be fine for small installations. Then select more > Enable for each.
In this example using the jobs' default frequency and cron configured to run at 15 minute intervals, scheduled mailings would be sent every 15 minutes and bounces would be fetched and processed hourly.
If you need to send some email from CiviCRM right away, without waiting for the cron job, you can trigger the sending process by visiting Administer > System Settings > Scheduled Jobs select more > Execute Now. Use this capability sparingly. It could utilize a lot of server resources and cause CiviCRM to slow down noticeably. The administrative settings for sending email are usually configured to minimize the load on the server, and the scheduling the job is a more efficient way to send mass email.
Scheduling only the mail jobs using the command-line interface
As an alternative on Linux and other Unix or Unix-like systems, individual cron jobs may be used to schedule inbound and outbound mail processing rather than the Scheduled Jobs page. This approach gives experienced system administrators more granular control over these processes by configuring specific cron jobs apart from other scheduled jobs.
The cron job needs to run using an account recognized by your CMS. Create an account dedicated to this task (e.g., mailprocess, civimail, etc), give it a long, secure password (e.g. seol-lzprm42amv-psyc) and grant it access to CiviCRM, CiviMail, and view all contacts. Do not change the account password without changing the password in the configuration files of this cron job.
To set up your cron job, first, find out whether php-cli is installed. From the shell, type php -v. If you see (cli) in the result, as in:
PHP 5.2.3-1ubuntu6.5 (cli) (built: Feb 11 2009 19:55:53) Copyright (c) 1997-2007 The PHP Group Zend Engine v2.2.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2007 Zend Technologies with eAccelerator v0.9.5.3, Copyright (c) 2004-2006 eAccelerator, by eAccelerator
This means you have php-cli installed and you should use it, because it has several advantages:
- You can run a PHP script at a lower priority than your web server, so that even if it takes a lot of CPU, it won't interfere with the regular users of your site.
- You can set different memory limits for the php-cli process and the PHP process used by your web server.
- You avoid the overhead of the web server and the HTTP layer.
- You won't have any timeout problems.
The following is complete cron configuration to handle CiviCRM's mail requirements:
# This must be set to the directory where civicrm is installed. CIVI_ROOT=/var/www/civicrm # Comment: I believe these two lines are unnecessary. # USER=www-data # MAILTO="email@example.com" # Location of the PHP Command Line Interface binary. # nice -19 forces to run at a lower priority than the web server PHP=nice -n19 /usr/bin/php # line to be modified according to the informations below # like this: PARAMS= -j -s<default or domain> -u<user> -p<password> -e Job -a process_mailing PARAMS= -j -sdefault -umailprocess -pseol-lzprm42amv-psyc -e Job -a process_mailing PARAMSBOUNCE= -j -sdefault -umailprocess -pseol-lzprm42amv-psyc -e Job -a fetch_bounces # cronjob send # m h dom mon dow command */5 * * * * cd $CIVI_ROOT; $PHP bin/cli.php $PARAMS */15 * * * * cd $CIVI_ROOT; $PHP bin/cli.php $PARAMSBOUNCE
The user that run the scripts (www-data in this example) needs to be able to write into the temporary folder. Your configuration might specify a different user.
You don't have to run both scripts at the same frequency. The preceding crontab file verifies every 5 minutes whether mail messages need to be sent, but only every 15 minutes whether bounced email needs to be processed.
- The site you used, which is -sdefault on Drupal. If you run multiple CiviCRM sites on a single server, you need to specify your site's domain, such as -sexample.org.
- The user login account (-umailprocess).
- The password you defined (-pseol-lzprm42amv-psyc).